Last Updated: 22 Aug, 2023     Views: 13

When giving an in-text citation for a work in APA, you should always include a page number or pin-point for a direct quote. It is not strictly necessary for paraphrased information, but might be required or desired by your lecturer (check with your lecturer). This information regards giving a pin-point reference for works that do not have page numbers.

For text-based works

If the work is relatively short (for example, a simple web page) and does not use section headings, use a paragraph number instead of a page number. For example, if the information is in the 5th paragraph on the website, use para. 5.

The colour maroon "has traditionally been associated with Queensland sport" (Queensland Government, 2017, para. 3).

For works that have section headings, use the section heading. If the amount of text under the section heading is particularly long, use a section heading and a paragraph number. In this case, the paragraphs are numbered within the section - so para. 5 is the fifth paragraph in the section, not in the document.

The Cooktown orchid "requires a well-drained, sunny position, protected from cold winds" (Queensland Government, 2017, About the Cooktown orchid section).

Flag protocols specifically state you should not fly the flag upside down, "even as a signal of distress" (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, n.d., Flying the flag section, para. 12).

Format the section heading in sentence case, beginning with a capital letter.

For audiovisual works

Provide a time stamp for video and audio material.

Cattleya orchids need to be planted off-center in a pot as the plants have "a back and a front" (Gardening Australia, 2020, 3:35).

For plays, scripture etc. with line or verse numbers

For a work with canonically numbered sections such as classical plays, some poetry and scripture, use the appropriate canonical numbering. For example: chapter and verse for scripture; act, scene and line for a play. Do not include the words "chapter", "verse", "act", "scene", etc. just the numbers.

John, more than Paul, emphasises the importance of love in early Christian teaching: "He who does not love does not know God, for God is love" (New King James Version, 1982, 1 John 4:8).

Polonius, although often regarded as a clown, is the play's philosopher, extoling "This above all: to thine own self be true, / And it must follow,as the night the day, / Thou canst not then be fals to any man" (Shakespeare, 1623/n.d., 1:3.84-86).

(N.B.: Classical works are often republished works, and are therefore cited with a double date - the date the orginal work was published, and the date the copy you have cited was published. In the Shakespeare example used above, the original work was published in 1623, but was reproduced on a website with no date, which is why the second date was given as n.d.).

In the reference list

If you are citing a work that should include page numbers in the reference list entry (e.g. journal article, book chapter, conference proceeding, etc.) but there are no page numbers in the source, skip the missing information and move to the next part of the pattern. For journal articles with article numbers (e.g. e02003), use this in the place of  page numbers in the reference list.