Last Updated: 11 May, 2023     Views: 280

With AMA, numbered endnotes are used for referencing, and letters are used for notes in tables and figures.

This information is for bottom-of-page footnotes, in which extra clarification or information is given at the bottom of the page. For footnotes, use the traditional symbol sequence:

*, †, ‡, §, ¶, #, ||,**, ††, ‡‡, §§, ¶¶, ##

For example

In text:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,* consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

At the bottom of the page:

*Estas ekzemplo.
†Ci tio estas ankau.
‡Alia ekzemplo.


  • In practice, you should avoid having information contained in footnotes if it can be included in the text. Use bottom-of-page footnotes sparingly, if at all.
  • Asterisks are not in superscript in text, but all other symbols in the sequence are. They are not in superscript at the bottom of the page.
  • If the note refers to information in a clause or sentence, the symbol goes at the end of that clause or sentence. If the note refers to a particular word or name, the symbol goes after that word. Just as with numbered endnotes, the symbol goes after any punctuation marks such as commas or full stops (but before a colon).
  • Each footnote at the bottom of the page ends with a full stop.

If using Word, open the Footnotes menu under the References ribbon and click on the "Number format" drop down, and scroll down past the Roman Numeral options to find the symbol sequence.

Comments (2)

  1. Hi, Are you please able to direct me to the section in the AMA manual where this information is located?
    by Reeti on 02 May, 2023
  2. Hello, Reeti. This information is not available in the current version of the manual. They have in the past, indicated that the "'old' list would still apply" when using bottom-of-page footnotes to add information, but as they no longer supply the "old" list in the manual, we've provided it here.
    by Sharon Bryan on 18 May, 2023